For the University of Cologne, the COPT.ZENTRUM is a central element of their technology transfer strategy from science to practice. Small- and middle-sized companies will benefit from the premises of the center, the technology, and the newest scientific findings in the field of organic electronics. Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum supplies the necessary vacuum technology.
Contamination such as humidity, oxygen or microbiological ingress can impact drug stability throughout the product life cycle. To prevent the risks of stability failure of highly moisture sensitive drugs (e.g. dry powder for inhalation), or the risk of biological ingress of parenteral drugs, highly sensitive integrity tests are required. Most test methods are very challenging in regards to time, effort, complexity or the limitation of sensitivity and detection range.
This article will examine in detail four of the five acceptable WAGD implementations under NFPA 99, along with some alternative ways they may be implemented. This article will not deal with passive implementations.